Since the 1970s, I have investigated the relationship between surface and subsurface reconnaissance to the underlying deposits. In this research, I have strived to integrated surface and subsurface reconnaissance techniques in order to more effectively investigate sites, while minimizing damage from intrusive excavation activities. These are necessary initial steps for planning of excavation activities. On the basis of the results of these non-intrusive or minimally destructive techniques, excavation strategies can be planned in order to minimize damage and to answer research questions. This part of my research has included the geoprospection of prehistoric and historic sites in Manitoba, Europe, Mexico, and South Africa.